Cameroon, country lying at the junction of western and central Africa. Its ethnically diverse population is among the most urban in western Africa. The capital is Yaoundé, located in the south-central part of the country.
The country’s name is derived from Rio dos Camarões (“River of Prawns”)—the name given to the Wouri River estuary by Portuguese explorers of the 15th and 16th centuries. Camarões was also used to designate the river’s neighbouring mountains. Until the late 19th century, English usage confined the term “the Cameroons” to the mountains, while the estuary was called the Cameroons River or, locally, the Bay. In 1884 the Germans extended the word Kamerun to their entire protectorate, which largely corresponded to the present state.
Cameroon is triangular in shape and is bordered by Nigeria to the northwest, Chad to the northeast, the Central African Republic to the east, the Republic of the Congo to the southeast, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea to the south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest.
Cameroon can be divided into northern, central, southern, and western geographic regions. North of the Benue (Bénoué) River, the savanna plain that occupies the country’s centre declines in elevation as it approaches the Lake Chad basin. The region contains scattered inselbergs, mounds of erosion-resistant rock that rise above the plains. The Gotel Mountains of the Adamawa Plateau trend from south to north, culminating in the Mandara Mountains of the northwes
The central region extends east from the western highlands and from the Sanaga River north to the Benue River. The land rises progressively to the north and includes the Adamawa Plateau, with elevations between 2,450 and 4,450 feet (750 and 1,350 metres).
The southern region extends from the Sanaga River to the southern border and from the coast eastward to the Central African Republic and the Republic of the Congo. It consists of coastal plains that are about 25 miles (40 km) wide and a densely forested plateau with an average elevation of a little more than 2,000 feet (600 metres).
The western region extends north and west from the Sanaga River and continues north along the Nigerian border as far as the Benue River. The relief is mostly mountainous, the result of a volcanic rift that extends northward from the island of Bioko. Near the coast, the active volcanic Mount Cameroon rises to the highest elevation in western Africa—13,435 feet (4,095 metres).